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IJRREST:Volume-1, Issue-1

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Detection of Spoofing Attacks in Wireless Network and Their Remedies
(Divya Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma, Ashish Kumar)


Wireless networks are vulnerable to spoofing attacks, which allows for many other forms of attacks on the networks. A spoofing attack is the most common online attack in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage, it become more sophisticated defense mechanisms. Although the identity of a node can be verified through cryptographic authentication, authentication is not always possible because it requires key management and additional infrastructural overhead. In this paper we describe different defense mechanism, their advantages and disadvantages against spoofing attacks.
Key Words: Spoofing, filtering, defense.


Circular Microstrip Antenna for Radar Application
(Shashwat Chturvedi, Sachin Jain, Deepak Kumar Jha, Manish Kumar)


This paper presents a circular shaped microstrip antenna having a rectangular slot which is excited through an inset feed. Simulation results show that the designed antenna can be used as a dual resonant antenna with effective return loss of -29.81 dB and -52.80 dB at 1.67GHz and 2.31GHz respectively. The dual band operation of the proposed antenna is due to two exited modes (TM01& TM11).for the proposed antenna TM11 is the fundamental as well as the dominant mode. The two modes have the similar broadside radiation characteristics and same polarization planes.
Keywords: Microstrip antenna; Wireless local area network (WLAN), dual frequency band.


Entrepreneurship Training – A Need of Today’s Economic World
(Dr. B. N. Gupta “Ravi”, Mrs. Dolly Yadav)


In this paper we analysis the effectiveness of young entrepreneurship training and development program and will understand the impotence of entrepreneurship training and development program. It will also help to understand the merits and demerits of such training programs. The benchmarking of the established goals and actual performance helps to understand the improvements needed in training programs.


Estimation of Convolution Masks for MRI Image Restoration Using Genetic Algorithm
(Deepak Jha, Sachin Jain, Manish Kumar and Mandeep Dalal)


The present paper proposes the technique for the restoration of images using convolution masks generated using GA. Image restoration is carried out to recover a corrected image from a degraded image and is specific to the type of degradation. In image restoration there is need to build the specific mathematical model for degradation or degradation function hence there is need to know about the cause of degradation without which some time it becomes impossible to correct the image. In most practical cases there is not enough information available about the degradation, and is needed to be estimated either analytically or empirically. The level of problem of image restoration is further increased by the presence of noise, and more than one cause of degradation, as in these circumstances it becomes difficult to formulate the mathematical model or degradation function. To alleviate this difficulty we have proposed method to generate convolution mask using GA for application in image restoration technique. The proposed algorithm has been tested on images simulated with the motion blurring and for the presence of noise. Finally the algorithm is applied to correct the motion artifact in Computed tomography images; the results obtained are promising and can be applied to other area of imaging also.
Keywords: convolution masks, Image restoration.


A Modern Mechanism to Avoid SQL Injection Attacks in Web Applications
(Prasant Singh Yadav, Vaibhav Kumar, Dr. K.P.Yadav)


SQL Injection attacks target databases that are accessible through a web front-end, and take advantage of flaws in the input validation logic of Web components such as CGI scripts. In the last few months application-level vulnerabilities have been exploited with serious consequences by the hackers have tricked e-commerce sites into shipping goods for no charge, usernames and passwords have been harvested and confidential information such as addresses and credit-card numbers has been leaked. The reason for this occurrence is that web applications and detection systems do not know the attacks thoroughly and use limited sets of attack patterns during evaluation. SQL Injection attacks can be easily prevented by applying more secure authentication schemes in login phase itself. To address this problem, this paper presents an authentication scheme for preventing SQL Injection attack using Advance Encryption Standard (AES) using hash function for stored password and user id . Encrypted user name and password are used to improve the authentication process with minimum overhead. The server has to maintain three parameters of every user: user name, password, and user’s secret key. This paper proposed a protocol model for avoiding SQL Injection attack using AES (PSQLIA-AES) with has function. This modeling explicitly captures the particular subtle incidents triggered by SQLIA adversaries and corresponding state transitions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known attack tree modeling of SQL injection attacks.
Keywords: SQL Injection, Tautology, Hash Function, SQLIA, Blind injection, piggy backing, PSIAW.


Multi-Feature Analysis Of Medical Images For Efficient Medical Diagnostics
(Rajeev Kumar, Dr. T. Lahiri, Upesh Bhatnagar, Prasant Singh Yadav)


The aim of our work is to extract the multiple features to achieve efficient classification accuracy so that our technique may play significant role in classification problem of real time world in general and in medical diagnostics in particular based ECGs signals.
We have proposed a simple multiple feature extraction rule which gives better decision in comparison to individual decision obtained from single classifier.
Now our proposed decision decomposition rule comes into scenario after having individual classifier’s results. Our approach first utilizes the best classifier. If this classifier classifies the sample into more than one class or fails to classify the test data then the classifier next to best is summoned to classify the remaining part of classification. If this classifier also produces some ambiguous classes (i.e. test data belongs to more than one class or does not belong to any class), then finally the last feature is summoned to finish remaining part of classification. Result obtained after last stage of classification may also produce some ambiguous classes. For that case we have designed minimum distance parameter for yielding better efficiency in identifying a single class for the test data.


Nationalism - The Fervour Reflected in the Novels of Chaman Nahal
(Azeemul Haque, Dr. Ritu Rajvanshi)


Indian nationalism refers to the consciousness and expression of political, social, religious and ethnic influences that help to mould Indian national consciousness. Nationalistic sentiments and expression encompass India’s ancient history, as the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization and of four major world religions- Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. The process of selection of the three phrases in India’s struggle for freedom and the partition of India reveals Nahal’ as a historical novelist.  India has been unified under many emperors and governments in history. Indian has also been unified under a central government by empires, such as the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. Nahal uses the nationalism with the historical background as a handmaiden to achieve several purposes .Chaman Nahal’s distinction lies in writing about Indian without any touch of exoticism. It should be noted that Indian Nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947; India embodied the broader Indian subcontinent and influenced a part of Asia, known as Greater Indian. It lends the sense of fullness and prevents the novel from being ‘cluttered with trivial journalistic details’. Nahal depicts the historical personages – Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhash Bose, Jinnah, Bhagat Singh, Dyer, Mountbatten, and Kasturbai.Nahal makes an exquisite use of the stylistic devices of contrast and conflict So, we can say that Chaman Nahal presents the Nationalism  as a live character in his novels.

Key words: Nationalism, Historical, Religion, Humanity, Independence


Management Control Systems and Decision-Making Dysfunctional Performance
(Mr. Anil Tiwari, Nawal Arora, Gaurav Malpani)


Control systems seek to bring commonality of goals and process coordination within organizations. The need for goal sharing and coordination of activities and functions has become increasingly important among organizations in view of the increasing pressures on private companies to become more competitive and profitable to satisfy the requirements of their stakeholders. This continuous need for ever-improving bottom line performance indicators has largely influenced the internationalization of business, in terms of seeking new markets and/or new sources of inputs, and in order to respond to the needs of customers. MCS is a generic term and this study will select specific management control sub-systems/mechanisms. The management control mechanisms will be budgetary participation (BP) and reliance on accounting performance measures (RAPM).

Key words: Management control system, dysfunctional performance.


Management Control System: Theoretical and Realistic Literature Assessment
(Mr. Anil Tiwari, Dr. Vinay Kant, Mr. Patel Vikas Kumar Virambhai)


The effort of this part is to assess the status of the hypothetical and sensible text pertaining to the study of organization control systems. More than the preceding four decades, the MCS literature has been subjugated by the eventuality paradigm, the incessant redefinition of what constitutes an ‘MCS, and the quantitative-led implications and findings that remain allied to the role of relative factors in MCS design and use. Even though the academic and abstract underpinnings (and consequent methods) have now become more assorted, it leftovers relatable to present this chapter vis-à-vis this prevailing paradigm and the synchronized methodologies. This chapter also seeks to exhibit the comparative scarcity of study on the pragmatic implications of administrative dysfunctional behaviors as a consequence of MCS.

Key words: Management Control System.


The Importance and Application of the Internet in Teaching English Literature
(Daryoosh Hayati, Eisa Amiri, Seyed Ahmad Hashemy)


Internet and cyber technologies have increased the need for learning literature through online sources in non-native contexts. This paper would first evaluate application of the Internet technology in the teaching of literature and then it would discuss the extent to which the online activities using Multiple Intelligences theory could be applied in practice. The statistical society included 40 English students at Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad University. The results showed that the students developed a positive view of using the Internet as a medium of instruction in the learning of literature and the multiple intelligences activities had a positive effect on students who used them by using the cyberspace as a medium of instruction in the learning of literature.

Key words: English Literature, cyberspace, web-based learning.


Economic Reforms and Its Impact on Indian Economy
(Pinki Goel, Ullash Chandra Satapathy)


Before 1991, India was a nation with political independence but no economic freedom. If the license and permit tied India down, they also stifled individual aspiration, ambition and achievement. That’s why the touchstone of the economic reforms launched in 1991. India initiated the reforms in 1991, after financial crisis. In this process, India liberalized the industrial sector from license-permit raj which has accelerated the growth of Indian economy. Indeed economic reforms, aided by the rapid diffusion of technology, have enabled individuals, groups and companies to tap talent to not only create new businesses but set off a virtuous cycle of growth and entrepreneurship but on the other side agriculture sector adversely affected. Foreign Direct Investment, exports and other related variables of external sector shows a positive outcome growth of Indian economy. This paper attempt to analyse the impact of two decades of economic reforms, on growth of GDP and other related factors, using regression model.

Key words: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), GDP, Gross Fixed Capital Formation and Export.


An Efficient Implementation of Digital Signature Algorithm with SRNN Public Key Cryptography
(Mr. Hemant Kumar, Dr. Ajit Singh)


Digital Signature schemes are mostly used in cryptographic protocols to provide services like entity authentication, authenticated key transport and authenticated key agreement. This architecture is related with Secure Hash Function and 512-bit SRNN cryptographic algorithm. SRNN algorithm is based on RSA algorithm with some modification and included more security. In this algorithm we have an extremely large number that has two prime factors (similar to RSA). In addition of this we have used two natural numbers in pair of keys (public, private). This natural number increases the security of the cryptosystem. If the security of our method proves to be adequate, it permits secure communication to be established without the use of carriers to carry keys. In this paper, a new algorithm has been designed for generating signature that overcomes the Shortcomings of the RSA system (longer processing time & computational overheads), also the new algorithm can be achieves high security for digital signature.

Key words: Public Key Cryptography, Digital Signature, RSA, SRNN.


Comparative Study of Pattern Matching Using Text Mining
(Abhay Bhatia, Shashikant, Robin Choudhary)


This paper reveals the challenges in pattern matching and shows the comparison between the existing and a proposed algorithm for finding out the matched links with the given number of links.


Relationship Between Faculty & Student Satisfaction For Better Results In Management Education
(Shalini Gupta, Pinky Goel)


This research paper seeks to examine the correlations between several aspects of faculty satisfaction and student satisfaction within a university setting. In this environment, faculty members are employees of the organization and students may be viewed as its customers.

Key words: Faculty Satisfaction, Student Satisfaction, Management Education, University.


Problem & Prospects of Management Education In India
(Shalini Gupta, Ullash Chandra Satapathy)


Management Education in India – which started a little less than half a century ago- has made rapid strides over the past decade. Today, an MBA or an equivalent degree is looked at by many as a passport to a good career – a career which is highly challenging and extremely rewarding. Post liberalization the relevance of management education has become more imperative, and this means a marked change in the way management education is perceived in India. So we must analyze the important questions, which need to be discussion so that a better study can be developed against the changing global scenario. One thing is certain that the demand of the time is the necessity to realize the effectiveness of a concrete paradigm shift in a dynamic field like “Management”.

Key words: Management Education, Education, Challenges in Management


Women, Work and Motherhood: A Study
(Meena Chand Lal, Dr. Mohinder Singh)


The performance of domestic duties, management of her household, the rearing of children and economizing of family means – there is a woman’s proper office. Motherhood is a way of life for many India women. For a long time women have preferred home and children over work and career, sacrificing her inner desires if any. With the economic and political change in the society, today, people are willingly accepting the idea of a career woman. The present study highlights the problems of working women, their career choices and some social issues related to working mothers. The study is undertaken in the city of Jalandhar, Punjab. It targets strata of society comprising of women from different economic backgrounds having different levels of qualifications and aspiring to different jobs patterns. The findings ask for an intellectual revolution and actual reform that men take up responsibilities of the home and family. They should share and take equal part in running the home to further reduce stress which arises from domestic responsibilities of a woman who is a working mother.

Key words: Stress, Dependency, Woman emancipation, Motherhood and Career.


Status of A Woman In Indian Society
(Shivani Sehgal)


The present paper is an attempt to examine the status of women in the Indian society. Whether the family of a girl is poor or wealthy, whether her class or region, her caste whether she is a fresh young bride or exhausted by many pregnancies and infancies already, an Indian woman knows that motherhood confers upon her a purpose and identity that nothing else in her culture can. Where and when tradition governs, and Indian woman does not stand alone; her identity is wholly defined by her relationship to others. In most societies a woman defines herself in relation and connection to other people; this is singularly true of an Indian woman. inspite of the educational opportunities available to women they are still struggling to maintain a suitable place for themselves in the society. Their status remains unchanged and they are considered as inferior to men. A women is considered as the one who is the care taker of the family .she works outside as well as manages the entire household still the society imposes restrictions on her which confines her inside the house and she is seen as a secondary being. In spite of women becoming the leaders in politics they still have to search a place for themselves in the society and their status remains unchanged. In some Indian families a son is preferred as compared to the daughter. He is seen as the inheritor of the family who is considered as the care taker of the family. Where a daughter is considered as a burden for the parents.

Key words: Empowering women, Economic Development, gender equality, women in the Indian society.


Importance and Revenue Potential of Service Tax
(Ajay Kumar Gupta, Dr. Sanjeev Gupta)


The concept of Service Tax was first time introduced in India in 1994; its scope has gradually increased, in view of the revenue earning potentials. Service Tax is growing faster than other sector, the service accounted for 52 % of the country’s Gross Domestic Product in the Financial Year 2011-2012. The role of this sector in the economy is quite significant. The Service Tax is fast emerging as an important tool of revenue collection for the Central Government. The Service Tax, that is Indirect Tax, has become a buzzword in the taxation laws and envisaged as the tax of the future. The growing importance of Service Tax can be perceived from the steady increase in the yield of Service Tax. Service Tax collection is mainly from metro areas and bigger towns. The statistics made available by the Central Excise Deportment would illumine the growing importance of service tax. There has been a considerable increase in the number of services under the tax net over past 18 years. The sect oral base has remained more or less constant during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Therefore, the statistics for these two financial years provide us the first opportunity to compare various performance indicators on common footing; it may be noted that while during 1999-2000 revenue increased by 16 per cent over the preceding financial year. The growth was more than 26 per cent in 2000-2001. The revenue growth would have been more impressive but for the lowering of ISD/STD telephone tariff by the Government in January. 2001. The Telecom services have contributed 44 per cent of the total revenue during 2012-2013. In fact, the total contribution of five major services, that is telecom, insurance, stockbrokers, advertising agencies and courier services has been 78 % of the total kitty.

Key words: Service Tax, financial year, revenue, taxable services.


Negative List and Concept of Service in Service Tax
(Ajay Kumar Gupta, Dr. Sanjeev Gupta)


By the Finance Act, 2012, the central Government has changed the taxation of services, where as the earlier, the service tax was levied by adopting “Selective approach” and only specified services were taxed where as now, the Government has adopted the “Comprehensive approach” to tax services, under which all services would be taxable unless any of the services is specifically excluded / exempted. The specific exclusion has been made by preparing a list of negative list of services, on which services tax shall not be imposed and mega exemption Notification No. 25/2012-Service Tax, dated 20.06.2012 has been issued by listing out the activities which are to be exempted from levy of Service Tax. Therefore, the Finance Act, 2012 has brought a paradigm shift by changing the approach from “Selective approach” to “Comprehensive approach” which has been described as “taxation of services based on Negative list of Services”.

Key words: Service, Service tax.


BIANCHI – V Cosmological Model In General Relativity
(Anakh Singh Sachdev, Jasvir Kaur, Inder Prakash)


In this paper the solutions of the Einstein's field equations of Bianchi type-V cosmological model in terms of general relativity with varying cosmological constant has been discussed. The Einstein's field equations are a coupled system of highly non-linear differential equations and there are no standard methods for solving them. In order to obtain physically realistic solutions, one has to make assumptions generally at the cost of physics of the problem or for mathematical convenience.

Key words: Bianchi-V, cosmological constant, Hubble parameter, deceleration parameter.


A Comparative Study Of Physiological Variables Of Female Cricket Players At Different Levels Of Participation
(Beena Negi, Dr. Amrita Pritam)


The purpose of the present study was to compare the physiological variables of female cricket players at different levels of participation. The study was administered on 260 women Cricket players in the age group 18-25 years of different levels belonging to Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh state on the stratified random sampling basis. Physiological variables as blood pressure (diastolic and systolic), pulse rate, breath holding, and respiratory rate were measured. The statistical techniques used to obtain the data were mean, standard deviation, t-test and Anova. The findings shows that players of Group-I (Interuniversity and national level) are better in blood pressure diastolic, pulse rate, respiratory rate and breath holding from the Group-II (inter-college and state level) women cricket players. The results of the study will be discussed in details during the presentation.

Key words: Physiological, Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Breath Holding, Respiratory Rate, Cricket Players.


Women's Access To Education: A Case Study Of Madhya Pradesh
(Nidhi Gupta, Dr. Manju Malhotra)


The object of this article is to highlight the policies of the Government of India to promote female education after independence vis-à-vis Women’s access to education in the State of Madhya Pradesh. The Government of India formulated various policies to educate women, still we find gender disparity in literacy. In 1981, education wise the rank of Madhya Pradesh was twenty four in the country. The Government of Madhya Pradesh too formulated many policies to promote female education. To increase rural women’s access to education free cycles were distributed to rural girls to facilitate them to pursue education in another village.

Key words: Gender, Disparity, Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, Ladli, Yojana, Gaon Ki Beti


Theme Of Protest In The Plays Of Vijay Tendulkar
(Komal Preet Virk)


Most of the plays deal with the theme of love, sex and violence. They reveal anger and frustration of the post-1960 generation in the Indian context. The ideas implicit in the themes are revolutionary. They are opposed to the conventional norms and established values. The emphasis here is on human nature and its complexities. In projecting the revolt of the plays’ protagonists against conventionality, Tendulkar displays his love of humanity and his commitment to human values. The psychological study explores shifts and changes that have taken place in the modes of human thinking, feeling, and behaving with regard to Tendulkar’s characters among which we see highly typified as well as individualized men and women.

Key words: Marginalised, Conceptualised.


Impact Of Information Technology On Reading Habits Of College Students
(Purnima Chauhan, Dr. Payare Lal)


Reading habit is an essential and important aspect for crating the literate society in this world. Computer technology had an impact on Govt. Colleges students. It shapes the personality of an individual and it helps them to develop the proper thinking methods and creating new ideas. At present due to the influence of the Mass Media people could not show much interest in reading the books, magazines and journals etc. Therefore, there is the urgent need to develop the reading habit among the individuals in the society. 100 valid survey questionnaires were collected from four college students in a H.P. University. 1.govt.college Sanjauli Shimla. 2. R.K.M.V college Shimla.3 Rajiv Gandhi college Kotshera Shimla.4.Govt.college Karsog. The results indicated that in these four college students reading habits changed from paper-based to internet-based reading 98% of students read online information after every day and 24% of them read emails every day. In contrast only 19.2% of them read newspaper and 25% of them read magazines often every day. The top 8 things students do online daily checking emails 22%, listening to music 96%, chatting with friends 96%, using MSN 95%, reading online information 84%, viewing online photo albums 60%, using Yahoo Messenger 50% and shopping online 54%. Students read more online news, emails, sales information, and movie review and fashion news that only other information. As to the topics of internet the remaking sequence that students indicated is entertainment, news and media. Computer and internet, recreation and sports, references, cuts and humanities and health. The results also indicated that gender, age, education, scores, employment states, online hours and college students reading habits are related. Suggestions and implications as well as future research directions were involved in this study.

Key words: Reading habits, reading behavior, online reading, and computer technology.




FRW Cosmological Model with Varying G and
(Santosh Kumari, Dr. R.K. Tiwari)


We study a uniform and isotropic cosmology with a decaying vacuum energy density, in the realm of a model with time varying gravitational constant G. To obtain the solutions of Einstein's field equations we assuming that the cosmological term proportional to , where R is a scale factor (Hoyle, F., Burbidge, G. and Narlikar, J.V., MNRAS 1997). We show that the space time exhibits point type singularity in the initial epoch and universe is expanding. The cosmological constant and gravitational constant G (t) reduces a genuine constant.

Key words: Cosmological Parameter, Cosmology, Variable Cosmological term.




Role And Responsibilities of A Teacher in View of Dr. Zakir Husain
(Jishan Ali, Dr. Rajkumar Tyagi)


The question of the concept, role and qualities of a teacher s directly dependent on what really is required or expected of him not only in the contemporary perspective of a particular social milieu but more so in the context of the cosmic purpose of human life. Apparently there can be no single answer to this question. Different philosophies of education, therefore, view it form different angle to put forth their respective understanding and role expectations. However, one thing is sure that the concept, role and qualities of a teacher arm or less inter-dependent and as such they need to be examined not in isolation from one another but as different dimensions of the same issue viz. What makes one a model teacher worthy of emulation in every respects. The core of an ideal teacher’s profile is that he ought to possess a multi-dimensional personality wholly dedicated and devoted to the total education of man. This is best expressed in the words of John Amos Comenius, a doyen among educational philosophers of the West, thus: “All who are born as human beings need education because they are destined to be real men, not wild beasts, dull animals, and clumps of wood. From this also follows: the bettr one is educated the more he excels others.”1 Obviousy the one who excels most can be a true teacher. Therefore, his fundamental focus would be on what Swami Vivekananda would mean by evolving the ‘man’ in man or what Mahatma Gandhi would do in deriving out the ‘best’ in man.

Key words: Role, Responsibilities of Teacher.


Learning and Structure of Neuronal Networks
(Deepak Kumar, Tuhin Dutta, Vinit Kumar Gulati, Madan Mohan Bajaj)


We study the effect of learning dynamic on network topology. Firstly, a network of discrete dynamical systems is considered for this purpose and the coupling strengths are made to evolve according to a temporal learning rule that is based on the paradigm of spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). This incorporates necessary competition between different edges. The final network we obtain is robust and has a broad degree distribution. Then we study the dynamics of the structure of a formal neural network. For properly choosen input signals, there exists a steady state with a residual network. We compare the motif profile of such a network with that of the real neural network of C. elagans and identify robust qualitative similarities. In particular, our extensive numerical simulations show that this STDP driven resulting network is robust under variations of model parameters.

Key words: Neuronal networks, learning process, neuronal structures, Biological background, discrete non linear map, Realistic dynamic of neurons, logistic map model, realistic models.


EP Waves: Their Properties, Propogation, Consequences, Audio Waves, VLF Signals, Brain Waves and Nociceptonics
(Deepak Kumar, Vinit Kumar Gulati, Mithlesh, Tuhin Dutta)


Nociceptionics deals with the properties, dynamism of nonciceptems, emitted from the quasi-particles of pain perception due to crual & deliberate slaughtering of living creatures in any part of the globe. The new subject of Nonciceptonics is analogous to the conventional discipline of Digital & Pulse Electronics. In this paper we shall provide numerical calculations using the various characteristics of nociceptons. Eventually the properties,propagation of the EP waves will also be discussed.

Key words: Nociceptionics, Propogation, Consequences, Audio Waves, VLF Signals, Brain Waves


Quantum Chaos And Non-Linear Statistical Mechanics Of Complex BIS Processes In The Four Dimensional World
(Vinit Kumar Gulati, Deepak Kumar, Tuhin Dutta, Madan Mohan Bajaj)


BIS means breakdown of integrated system. EP waves are generated due to the annihilation of living creatures.BIS effect leads to BIS manifold. In simple words, killing of living creatures leads to unexpected serious catastrophes and chaotic situations everywhere. As a consequence the topology of the universe changes. These consequences, we represent by the symbol M and we prounce it as the BIS manifold. BIS manifold is the result of the perturbations, disturbances and destructions created by weak, moderate, strong and extremely strong BIS processes. In our present research paper we will study the statistical mechanics of the complex BIS processes leading to quantum chaos.

Key words: BIS, Process, Non-linear, Quantum


Educational Thought of Dr. Zakir Husain on Training of a Teacher
(Jishan Ali, Dr. Rajkumar Tyagi)


On the quality of teachers depends the quality of education. The problem of preparing good teachers has, therefore, often been the centre of thinking of educational philosophers, Pedagogues and practitioners whether of East or West. For instance, Plato in the Republic sketched the question of teachers’ preparation particularly in relation to his over all ideas on education. Similarly, in the Jesuit system it was forbidden to take to teaching without undergoing proper training. In that, the system of teacher training has been considered at length and thoroughly by Jesuits. Pope Pius XI believed that perfect schools were the result not so much of good methods as good teachers; for this reason teachers should be “thoroughly prepared and well-grouped”2 for their work. This is very well brought out by other schools of thought that teacher’s training tend to make him perfect in every way and in every respect of his job as well as personality, to help him leave a positive and wholesome impact on the development of children put to his charge.

Key words: Educational Thoughts, Training of Techers.


Expanding Universe with Cosmological Term in General Relativity
(R.K. Tiwari, S.Kumari)


We study the Einstein field equations with variable cosmological constant , gravitational constant G in the presence of perfect fluid for the Friedmann- Robertson-Walker cosmological model. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the cosmological constant and gravitational constant both are proportional to the Hubble parameter. The cosmological term tends asymptotically to a genuine cosmological constant and the model tends to an expanding universe.

Key words: Variable Cosmological Term, Cosmology.








Untapped Potential of the Rural Automotive Market: A qualitative perspective on the demand for Internal Combustion Engine based Transportation Systems
(Pradhuman Singh, Shyam Singh, Dr. S. K. Jain)


In the wake of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (Prime Minister’s Rural Prime Minister’s Rural Roadways Plan), there has been an enhanced road connectivity in the villages of India. Owing to the same, the Markets have seen an unprecedented demand for Tractors, Combine Systems, and Transportable Agricultural Equipment, but also motorcycles, scooters and 4 wheelers ranging from hatchbacks to the Sports Utility Vehicles. Also, various State Road Transport Corporations have placed renewed orders for newer buses as well as greater requirements placed by transporters and Supply Chain Management and logistics companies. Not only has this fuelled greater demand for convention fuels such as Petrol and Diesel, but the rural consumer has also showed keen interest in availing fuels such as Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Not to mention, Hybrid vehicles based on electric motors have found takers in the rural market. Needless to say, improvised vehicle systems based on conventional engines used to pump water, fondly known as ‘Jugaad’ as well as old scooter engines are recycled and re-used in motorcycle suspended rickshaws primarily used to ferry vegetables from one location to another at extremely low operating costs. The 700 million untapped rural markets remains the largest untapped consumer segment in the world.

Key words: Agribusiness, Agriculture, Alternative, Conventional, Construction, Design, Disposable Income, Economy, Indigenization, Innovation, Inspiration, Practicality, Purchasing Power, Renewable Energy, Renovation, Replication, Restoration.


Re-engineering the Rural Networks: An Innovative Approach towards Creating Smart Connectivity and Energy Independence for Indian Villages
(Pradhuman Singh, Shyam Singh, Dr. S. K. Jain)


Energy and Connectivity are the new needs in addition to food, shelter and clothing for the rural as well as urban masses. Notwithstanding the fact that rural and urban divide is dwindling with time for inclusive growth, there is still a wide gap between what is required to fulfill the ever growing demand for transportation as well as power and energy requirements of the people. Keeping the policy perspective aside, since both the facets are interdependent and complimentary, a tremendous degree of thrust must be applied to working on technologies and making them available to all sections of society so as to enable inclusive growth. This paper looks at the various areas of energy independence as well as rural transportation that can make a significant impact in writing the growth story for the rural masses.

Key words: Solar Power, Wind Energy, Bio-Gas, Bio fuel, Conventional, Bio-degradable, Design, Nuclear Power, Economy, Aviation, Metro, Inspiration, Practicality, Hybrid, Renewable Energy, Rivers, Canals, Non-Renewable, Restoration.