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IJRREST:Volume-1, Issue-2

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Survey of Secure Routing Protocols for MANETs (MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS)
(Ajay Sharma, Nithesh K. Nandha, Kailash Parik, Prof. K.P. Yadav)


Many academic papers evaluate protocols and their abilities, assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other. Different protocols are then evaluated based on measure such as the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, end-to-end packet delays, network throughput etc. Network sizes and occurrences increased creating a requirement for inter-network communication. Research on MANETs has nearly 20 years focused on routing and this focus still remains. Several routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed and some surveys on these protocols have been published (2010) and an IETF Routing Area Working Group MANET (Mobile, 2011) has been active for a decade with six currently active Internet drafts.
Key Words: MANET, IDS, DoS, RTT.


Bots: An Application Enhancement to Android Architecture
(Sachin Vikal, Pankaj Sharma, Divyapal Singh)


Android-Bots is application software developed for the Android mobile devices. It is mainly developed to overcome the issues like lack of proper sound profile, alarm and battery management. This software changes device setting as per specified locations of the mobile.
Keywords: Android, sound, profile, battery, alarm, mobile, Bots.


Gene Prediction Using Machine Learning Techniques
(Laxmikant Vishwamitra)


The basic purpose of the research work aims at predicting the genes of interest in molecular sequence databases using machine learning techniques like neural networks, decision trees, data mining, hidden markov models etc The primary focus of the research will be on proposing new or improving already existing ab initio and homology based methods for gene prediction. The proposed methods will be validated by comparing their performance with existing standard methods and incorporating them within a suite of software programs that can be used by researchers for finding genes of their interests.
Key Words: Genetic Code, Neural Network.


Scenario of Research In Higher Education & Technical Education
(Dolly Yadav, Dr. Bhawna Bhatnagar)


Engineering and technology play a key role in globalization as developed and developing countries develop and implement effective and efficient strategies that advance their economies and social development. Engineering has played a critical role in economic development in the history of civilization, because engineers are important not only in solving local problems but also in knowledge creation and knowledge transfer. Thus, science and technology education need to be in continuous evolvement in order to keep assisting countries reduce poverty, boost socio-economic development and make the right decisions for sustainable and environmentally compatible development. In a flat world, a global approach is needed to effectively innovate engineering education. The world needs to establish effective engineering education processes of high quality around to assure a global supply of well-prepared engineering graduates, engineers who can act locally but think globally.
Keywords: Research, education, development.


Software Testing: Approach to Identify Software Bugs
(Dr. Pankaj Yadav, Umesh Kr. Yadav, Surbhi Verma)


Software testing is an investigation which is performed to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding errors and other defects.
Key Words: Testing, Bugs, Defects, Failure.


Selfish Behaviour Prevention and Detection in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Using Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
(Naveen Kumar Gupta, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Abhishek Gupta)


Various portable electronic devices now have wireless interfaces as standard equipment. Such interfaces will be common in ad hoc networks, relaying packets mutually among users' nodes in a network without base stations. These are mostly infrastructure less and operate very well on such types of networks. However the misbehavior of nodes in MANET will impact the efficiency, the reliability, and the fairness in MANET. Hence, there is a need to detect the selfish node in MANET. In this paper we have provide the comparison study of different types of methods provided to increase the Selfish node detection rate and decrease the false detection rate. Finally, we will generate a model that was developed due to simulation of all these methods to increase the Selfish node detection rate and decrease the false detection rate and thus increase the efficiency of the system.
Keywords: Selfish Nodes, AODV, misbehavior, MANET.


Developing An Optimized Solution For Script Identification Processes In a Multilingual Document Using OCR
(Arvind Kr. Patel, Mr.Ashok Kumar Dubey, Mr.Vineet Shrivastava)


India is a multi-lingual country where Roman script is often used alongside different scripts in a text document. To develop a script specific Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system, it is therefore necessary to identify the scripts from the documents correctly. In this paper we will identify script in a multilingual document, script before proceeding it to an OCR using Horizontal Projection Profile (HPP) approach. This approach focuses on the correct and efficient identification of script in a multi lingual document. This can help in automated form of written paper in Indian languages. The particular system will determine the Devanagiri, Malayalam and kannada script lines.
Key Words: OCR, Multiscript, HPP, Inputscript, LWC.


Advanced Image Compression: Haar Wavelet
(Sachin Vikal, Pankaj Sharma, Rachit Shyam Khanna, Sandeep Gupta)


Advanced Image Compression: Haar Wavelet Compression is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of expensive resources, such as hard disk space or transmission bandwidth. On the downside, compressed data must be decompressed to be used, and this extra processing may be detrimental to some applications. The design of data compression schemes therefore involves trade-offs among various factors, including the degree of compression, the amount of distortion introduced (if using a lossy compression scheme), and the computational resources required to compress and uncompress the data. A picture can say more than a thousand words. Unfortunately, storing an image can cost more than a million words. This isn't always a problem, because many of today's computers are sophisticated enough to handle large amounts of data. Sometimes however you want to use the limited resources more efficiently. Digital cameras for instance often have a totally unsatisfactory amount of memory, and the internet can be very slow. Wavelet theory intends to analyze and transform data. It can be used to make explicit the correlation between neighboring pixels of an image, and this explicit correlation can be exploited by compression algorithms to store the same image more efficiently. Wavelets can even be used to transform an image in more and less important data items. By only storing the important ones the image can be stored in an amazingly more compact fashion, at the cost of introducing hardly noticeable distortions in the image. In this paper the mathematics behind the compression of images will be outlined. I will treat the basics of data compression, explain what wavelets are, and outline the tricks one can do with wavelets to achieve compression. This paper will also discuss the implementation of the Haar wavelet transform and some of its applications.
Keywords: Image compression, Haar wavelet, Vector quantization.


Secure Routing Protocols for Mobile Adhoc Networks
(Kailash Parik, Prof. K.P. Yadav)


A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose”. Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic.
Key Words: Cellular network, adhoc network, mobile network security.


Security in Personal Page URL and Social Network Sites
(Prasant Singh Yadav, Rameshwaram Tiwari, Arvind Kumar)


Today’s Social Networking has become very popular during the past few years. Social networks are one of the most advanced forms of communications. The network of social relations, which is built during our everyday life, can be moved to the Web, organized and expanded with new contacts. The social network phenomenon was born in the USA and developed around three main categories: professional links, friendship and love relations. It have full feature for communication with best clarity. Any mouse can share their picture, video and audio through social network sites. Many institutions and organization create their page on different social network sites. Social network is the best channel for advertisement and promoting to any organization or their product. But in previous few years’ hacker hack profile, picture, video and other privacy. They are misuse of picture & other multimedia files. It is a very easy way to copy or save any user’s Images or videos and create fake profile same as real user’s profile, also send sms & messages to any mouse through fake ID. Until this problem not solved cyber crime increases day by day. If we will solve this problem then government and non government organization can use for all official activity, Government can use for e-voting purpose. This is idea to provide high performance next generation feature through social network. Person can search by location wise, Pin No. wise and many more features [3].
Keywords: Social Networking Sites, security.


Analysis of WiMAX Security In M-Healthcare Application
(Upesh Bhatnagar, Indu Bala)


M-healthcare (telemedicine) system is an emerging application. Telemedicine can be defined as the delivery of health care and sharing of medical knowledge over a distance using telecommunication means. In this system the patient has no need to stay at hospitals rather they (patient) can perform their daily routine activities during health monitoring. In this system the patient data is transmitted through wireless means from patient’s home to the personal computer of doctor. Wireless technology used to transmit the patient data, can be WiMAX. The patient data is very crucial so it has to be transmitted in secure manner. Because if by any means the patient data is altered, then the doctor will prescribe wrong diagnosis and treatment, which may cause even death. So security is of main concern. This review paper includes the various security threats in WiMAX and solutions to overcome these threats.
Key Words: WiMAX, healthcare, m-healthcare security in healthcare system.


Impact of Transportation System on Environment in Developing Countries “A Review”
(R.K. Sharma, Dr. Shiv Kumar)


The transportation system has a number of adverse environmental impacts. The effects can be direct, indirect and both. Indirect effects may have greater consequences than direct effects, but are not generally well known. Transportation system and the operation of vehicles can affect rural and urban community. Emission and road crashes have a significant impact on health, and the form of the transport system. The development of motor vehicle-dependent environments imposes higher average living costs on families and can also restrict mobility for the elderly, children, the poor, the disabled and those who do not wish to own a motor vehicle.
Keywords: Transportation, environmental impacts, threats.


Mobile Proactive Secret Sharing in Cloud Computing
(Vaibhav Kumar, R. P. Ojha)


This research paper introduces a scheme to secure any secret value in cloud network by Mobile Proactive Secret Sharing (MPSS). This is an extension of proactive secret sharing, where contributing parties of a network hold the shares of a secret value. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more ?exible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: instead of the group of shareholders being exactly the same from one instance to the next, we allow the group to change arbitrarily. In addition, we allow for an increase or decrease of the threshold at each instance.
Key Words: Cloud Computing, Proactive secret sharing, cryptography, epoch, Byzantine faults.


Knowledge Representation by Concept Mining & Fuzzy Relation from Unstructured Data
(Rafeeq Ahmed, Nesar Ahmad)


Concept hierarchies or Taxonomies are crucial for any knowledge representation system. It’s important because it allow formulating rules in an abstract and concise way and thus facilitating the development, re?nement and reuse of knowledge. Making the knowledge implicitly contained in the texts explicitly is a great challenge. Knowledge can be found in texts at different levels of explicitness depending on the sort of text considered. However, it is also well known that any knowledge-based system suffers from the so-called knowledge acquisition bottleneck. In order to partially overcome this problem we present a novel approach to automatically learning a concept hierarchy from a text corpus. We focus on learning composite concepts and building up a knowledge base from existing documents. We have then proposed our design for extracting concepts from the unstructured document, although it can be generalized for html, pdf, ppt and so on, but accuracy of the algorithm can be checked at few documents only. From the extracted concept, we have calculated the fuzzy distance among concepts. Then we have some rules on the basis of experimental results.
Keywords: knowledge representation, concept hierarchy, fuzzy concept relation, unstructured data.


A Novel Approach for Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unit Testing for Object Oriented Programs
(Manik Chandra Pandey, Mandeep Singh Saini , Rameshwaram Tiwari)


Testing is the most important method used to validate a software product. Unit testing is an efficient method of detecting and isolating defects in individual units of code. In this thesis we explore some issues relating to the unit testing of object-oriented systems, using the experimental approach for validation specifically we Proposes a framework for assessing the effectiveness and the efficiency of unit testing and applies it to evaluate different coverage criteria.
Key Words: Testing, effectiveness, efficiency.


Software Testing Techniques for Finding Errors
(Sarvachan Verma, Dr. K P Yadav, Prof. Upendra Kumar Tiwari)


Software testing is an important means to ensure software security and trustiness. This paper first mainly discusses the definition and classification of software testing, and tools of software security testing widely. Then it analyzes and concludes the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the scope of application, presents taxonomy of security testing tools. Finally, the paper points out future focus and development directions of software security testing technology. Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness, completeness and quality of developed computer software. With that in mind, testing can completely establish the correctness of computer software.
Keywords: component, unit test, processes, integration test, function test, performance test, installation test.


Innovation idea of Virtualization in Cloud Computing
(Mr. Kuldeep Kumar, Mr. Arvind Kr. Petal)


Cloud computing refers to the use of Internet based computer technology for a variety of services that allows us to highly efficient computing by centralizing memory, storage, processing and bandwidth. It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them [1]. This paper give us an idea to evaluation of virtualization in cloud computing. Virtualization reduces the cost, time and complexity of technology. Organizations are able to save time and money, using virtual resources as needed, Access is secure, assets are centralized and controlled.
Key Words: Cloud computing, virtualization, time, cost, complexity, central remote servers.


Estimation of Clock Skew Using VHDL
(Vaishali Gupta, Suvarna.na, Naveen Jain , Sarita Bhan)


The clock signal has always been a matter of concern for most of the high–speed functions of the synchronous integrated circuits as it decides the speed regularities. To reduce the irregularities of this signal, the clock skew is one of the major constraints to be taken care of. In this paper, an efficient technique for the estimation of this clock skew has been introduced and VHDL has been used to verify its functionality. The clock skew estimation has been used to pave a way for reducing the speed irregularities of the integrated circuit due to clock skew.
Keywords: Clock skew, RTL Design, Clock distribution networks, clock scheduling, synchronous circuit.


Assessment Model for Component at Fine Grain Level
(Kiran Bedi, Mandeep Singh Saini , Manik Chandra Pandey)


The aim of Metrics is to predict the quality of the software products. Various attributes, which determine the quality of the software, include maintainability, defect density, fault proneness, normalized rework, understandability, reusability etc. The requirement today is to relate the reusability attributes with the metrics and to find how these metrics collectively determine the reusability of the software component. To achieve both the quality and productivity objectives it is always recommended to go for the software reuse that not only saves the time taken to develop the product from scratch but also delivers the almost error free code, as the code is already tested many times during its earlier reuse.
Key Words: Software Engineering, Software Testing, misbehavior, MANET


Load Balancing in Distributed Systems
(Santosh Kumar Maurya, Vikram Singh)


In Computer world Server load balancing is the process of distributing service requests across a group of servers. Users of one workstation are not hindered by the CPU intensive applications run on a different workstation. However, when a large number of machines in the network are idle, the efficiency of computation is decreased. The sharing of computing resources in a distributed system is a more complex matter than in an equivalent centralized system, due to the fragmentation of resources over a set of autonomous and often physically separate hosts. The effect of this fragmentation is reduced by evenly distributing the workload of the system over all the hosts, resulting in more effective use of the system resources, and a corresponding reduction in the average response time of processes. Load balancing promises to alleviate this problem by sharing the workload on heavily loaded workstations with lightly loaded workstations. A threshold can be established so that only a limited number of processes are transferred to the lightly loaded sites, so that the load at those sites does not inhibit local execution of processes. We present a solution for the Load Balancing Problem by designing an algorithm calculates loads and chooses modules to be relocated. The algorithm is then compared with other well-known load balancing algorithms.
Keywords: Load Balancing, Distributed Systems, Load Dispatcher, Load Reduction.


Security and Privacy Concerns in Cloud Computing
(Mamta Devi, Mandeep Singh Saini , Manik Chandra Pandey)


Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Strong security always consumes IT resource and increase difficult of use. In order not only to provide enough security, but also to mitigate the IT consumption and the difficult of use in cloud computing. Cloud computing technology is a new concept of providing dramatically scalable and virtualized resources, bandwidth, software and hardware on demand to consumers. Consumers can typically requests cloud services via a web browser or web service. Using cloud computing, consumers can safe cost of hardware deployment, software licenses and system maintenance. This privacy review analyses the relevant laws, technological problems and literature on Software as a Service (SaaS). The advent of web applications within powerful web browsers has meant the consumer-oriented segment of the IT industry is evolving away from the server environment to an open field client environment. This paper aims to emphasize the main security issues existing in cloud computing environments. The security issues at various levels of cloud computing environment is identified in this paper and categorized based on cloud computing architecture.
Key Words: Cloud Computing, Security Issues, Security Concerns of Cloud Computing, Securing Data in the Cloud, Cloud Computing Security Issues.


(Ujjwal Agarwal, Prof. (Dr.) K. P. Yadav, Kailash Parik, Nithesh K. Nandakumar)


A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless network that uses multi-hop peer-to-peer routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity. The network topology in a MANET usually changes with time. Therefore, there are new challenges for routing protocols in MANETs since traditional routing protocols may not suitable for MANETs. This paper presents a state-of-art review and comparison for typical representatives of routing protocols designed for MANETs. This paper aims at providing criteria according to which protocol can be compared and classified. There are mainly three types of MANETs protocols: Hierarchical Routing, Flat Routing and Geographic Position Assisted Routing. Under Flat routing there are Proactive and Reactive protocols. Our study shows that reactive protocols do not always have low control overhead, as people tend to think. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic flows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity changes rates, than other protocol. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with smaller number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is also feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead.
Keywords: MANET Routing Protocols , Proactive Protocol, Reactive Protocol, FSR, OLSR, AODV.


Strategies: That Are Helpful For Rural India
(Mr. Sandeep Garg, Mr. Rohit Kumar)


With urban markets being saturated for several categories of consumer goods and with increasing rural incomes, marketing executives are fanning out and discovering the strengths of the large rural markets as they try to extend their markets. Today, the idea has grown out of its infancy and dominates discussions in any corporate boardroom strategy session.
Key Words: Rural India.


(Vibhuti Aggarwal, Pranav Garg)


A child is just like an unripe fruit that is still attached with his parent stem, and needs great love, care and attention, if plucked before ripening it is sure to lose its essence and fragrance. So we must tackle the problems of children very carefully and also improve our behavior in front of them as parents who are called to be best teacher of the children. Understanding what makes child tick is an enormous task, so the study of child psychology is both wide and deep. The ultimate goal of this field is to study the many influences that combine and interact to help make child who they are and to use that information to improve parenting, education etc other areas focused on benefiting children. By having a solid understanding how children grow, think and behave, parents and professionals can be better prepared to help the kids in their care.
Keywords: Child, Motivation, Parents, Values.


Design and Evaluation of Query Prefetching Prediction Model for Effective Web Information
(Anoop Sharma)


Internet Searching on the WWW is became an everyday task for billions of people around the world. People search for content (text pages, images, sound, video, e-shops and many more) on every possible work of life, and rely on search engines to help them locate their points of interest from amongst the billions of resources on the Internet. The query pre-fetching is widely use in the field of WEB technologies which help the web user to analyze previous browsing patterns and queries.
Key Words: Query prediction, prefetching, dynamic view, prediction algorithm, multidimensional data modeling, web caching, OLAP, Markov Model, IPM


Impact of Social Exchange Economy Models and Game Theory
(Neeraj Goel)


This article focuses on the economic applications of game theory. The foundation for the basis of game theory is introduced followed by examples of some simple games. The concept of Two-Person Zero-Sum Games is evaluated. There is also a discussion on how social norms influence behaviors when playing games. One particular game, the exclusion game, is highlighted.
Keywords: Social Exchange Economy, game theory.