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IJRREST:Volume-2, Issue-1

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Present Status of Solar Still: A Critical Review
(Bhavsinh Zala, Kuldip Dodia, Hitesh N Panchal)


People can survive for day, weeks or months without food, but cannot live for more than a week without water. The body use water for digestion, absorption, circulation, transporting nutrients, building tissues, carrying away waste and maintaining body temperature. The average adult consumes about 2.5 to 3 litters of water per day to drink. Solar still is a device, which can produce water more than 2.5 Liter to 3 Liter of water by improvement in it. Hence, this review paper shows researches done by many scientists on solar still to enhance productivity.


Sensor Energy Optimization Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Networking
(Neeraj Kumar Mishra)


Wireless sensor networks is challenging in that it requires an enormous breadth of knowledge from an enormous variety of disciplines. A lot of study has been done to minimize the energy used in routing and number of protocols has been developed. These protocols can be classified as - Hierarchical, data centric, location based and Network flow protocols. In this paper, we are particularly focusing on hierarchical protocols. In such types of protocols, the energy efficient clusters are formed with a hierarchy of cluster heads. Each cluster has its representative cluster head which is responsible for collecting and aggregating the data from its respective cluster and then transmitting this data to the Base Station either directly or through the hierarchy of other cluster heads. Fuzzy logic has been successfully applied in various areas including communication and has shown promising results. However, the potentials of fuzzy logic in wireless sensor networks still need to be explored. Optimization of wireless sensor networks involve various tradeoffs, for example, lower transmission power vs. longer transmission duration, multi-hop vs. direct communication, computation vs. communication etc. Fuzzy logic is well suited for application having conflicting requirements. Moreover, in WSN, as the energy metrics vary widely with the type of sensor node implementation platform, using fuzzy logic has the advantage of being easily adaptable to such changes.


Forward Pumping Based Fiber Optical Raman Amplifiers in Different Optical Fiber Transmission Medium Systems
(Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed)


This paper has presented the transmission systems with employing Raman amplifier technology in forward pumping directions in order to have put up with much higher level of design complexities, when compared to conventional transmission lines with doped fiber optical amplifier. Even for the construction of a fundamental, basic building block a unit of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA), the designer have to struggle with the problems associated with the interactions between pump / signal waves mediated by Raman process, have to wander within the vast degrees of freedom given the choice of pumping directions/ratios, and have to contemplate with the wavelength dependent fiber loss/noise figure profiles. Optimizing optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and designing ultra-long haul links with best signal quality factor performances and minimum bit error rates, while adjusting variables in the fiber length, Rayleigh penalty, pump noise, nonlinear penalty, dispersion and gain distribution is a problem which can be easily stated, but in reality is not a process which can be easily achieved.
Key Words: Optical signal processing, Performance signature, Raman Amplifiers, and Photonic Communications Engineering.


Need for Reshaping - Engineering Education “Before Seeing the Design of Future, First See the Future Designer”
(Dolly Yadav, Dr. Bhawna Bhatnagar, Upesh Bhatnagar, P. S. Yadav)


Engineering Trends specializes in studies and analyses in the field of engineering education. Our principal strengths lie in understanding the specific types of statistical data necessary for decision-making, experience in engineering education and credible, proven predictions of future degree trends. We have to compile our databases to support efficiently and effectively analyses of a wide variety of quantitative issues in engineering education. Credibility is our hallmark and it is as important to us as it is to those who seek information from us.
Keywords: Engineering education.


Characteristics and Disposal Problem of Industrial Effluents
(Shashank Shekhar Tiwari, Dr. S. H. A. Kazmi)


The crux of the present day environmental problem concerning the water is further accentuated due to everyday pouring in of the filth from the communities, untreated wastes from industries and even increasing run-off excess and unutilized fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural fields, orchards and forests. This problem is getting from bad to worse with advancement of technology pertaining to meet the increasing demands of swarming human population.
Key Words: Environmental, Agricultural fields.


Effect of Polluted Irrigation Water on Crop Plants
(Shashank Shekhar Tiwari, Dr. S. H. A. Kazmi)


“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed.” Rapid industrialization has resulted in the generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes in such a huge quantity that a serious threat is likely to be posed to the quality of water in the years to come. The crux of the present day environmental problem concerning the water is further accentuated due to everyday pouring in of the filth from the communities, untreated wastes from industries and even increasing run-off excess and unutilized fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural fields, orchards and forests. This problem is getting from bad to worse with advancement of technology pertaining to meet the increasing demands of swarming human population.
Keywords: Gaseous, Orchards, Forests.


Comparative Analysis of Gabor Filter Based and Gaussian Filter Based Fingerprint Recognition System
(Hariom Tyagi, Dr. S.K. Singh)


Fingerprint recognition is one of the most reliable and popular biometric recognition methods in these days. In this thesis work, we describe a fingerprint recognition system consisting of three main steps-fingerprint image preprocessing, feature extraction and feature matching by two different processes. First processes is based on Gabor filter and second is based on Gaussian filter and we use these process in the fingerprint image preprocessing steps and after getting result by first step then use feature extraction and feature matching steps simultaneously and separately for each process. After apply all steps we calculate the FAR (False Accept Rate) and FRR (False Reject Rate) for both process separately and compare results on the basis of FAR and FRR of Gabor filter based and FAR and FRR of Gaussian Filter based. Which process has the reduced FAR and FRR this is the best process than other. In this research work, The Gaussian filter based process has reduced FAR and FRR than the Gabor filter based process. So we can say that the Gaussian filter is much better than the Gabor filter for matching the Fingerprint Images. The FAR (False Accept Rate) is most dangerous thing than the FRR (False Reject rate). The image-preprocessing step enhances fingerprint image to obtain binaries ridges, which are needed for feature extraction. Feature points, which are also called Minutiae (such as Ridge ending, ridge bifurcation are then extracted) followed by false minutiae elimination. The proposed algorithm discussed here for the comparison of two processes and get which one is better than other. The proposed algorithm is tested on FVC2002 databases and compared to all participators in FVC2002.This system has been developed using MATLAB 7.0 (Matrix Laboratory).
Key Words: Fingerprint recognition, FRR, FAR, Biometrics.


Routing Protocols in Mobile Networks
(Kulbeer Singh, Prof. K.P. Yadav, Deepti Rani, Ajay Sharma)


In the recent years, wireless technology has enjoyed a tremendous rise in popularity and usage, thus opening new fields of applications in the domain of networking. One of the most important of these fields concerns Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) where the participating nodes do not rely on any existing network infrastructure. A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop packet radio network without the aid of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Therefore, the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on continual and arbitrary basis. Nodes within each other’s radio range communicate directly via wireless links, while those that are further apart use other nodes as relays. Ad- hoc networks are a new paradigm of wireless communication for mobile hosts. No fixed infrastructure such as base stations as mobile switching. Nodes within each other radio range communicate directly via wireless links while these which are far apart rely on other nodes to relay messages. Node mobility causes frequent changes in topology.
Keywords: Mobile Network, Routing Protocol.


Passwords Management using Blowfish Algorithm
(Savita Devidas Patil)


Authentication is as fundamentally a part of our lives as privacy. We use authentication throughout our everyday lives, especially on the Internet, you might have found one user having more and more usernames or IDs and passwords, which contains users private information. It is very difficult to remember all usernames and passwords and it is unsafe to write them down on notebooks. To solve this problem, this paper explained a design and implementation of Passwords Management System (PMS), by which you can manage your usernames and passwords efficiently. It was made based on Blowfish Algorithm, which is a symmetric block cipher provides high security and designed by Bruce Schneier. Because of the difficulties associated with remembering passwords, a group of software applications, password managers has emerged. These applications deal with everything from the simple storage of user IDs and passwords to the management of password access across many users.

Keywords: Padding, Password Management, Blowfish Algorithm


The Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program Regarding Knowledge on Optional Vaccines
(Mrs. Damyanti Yadav, Ms. Tej Mala Pukhrambam, Mrs. Kamlesh Bajaj)


Many of us think of vaccination as something that applies only to early childhood. But getting immunized against contagious disease is a lifelong need. In fact, vaccination should continue throughout the life of a child, including in the adolescent years. Even for adults, the annual flu shot is a scheduled part of keeping healthy — all the more so, the older we get. Just as important as the initial vaccinations are the booster shots, which are designed to build on the previous vaccines’ effectiveness to continue immunity.
Keywords: Vaccines, Immunity.


Cashew Nutshell Liquid Resin
(Mohd. Meraj Jafri, Dr. D. K. Singh, Dr. P. K. Kamani)


CNSL (The cashew nutshell liquid) or cashew shell oil is a natural resin found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew nutshell and is a byproduct of processing cashew nuts. Its composition varies depending on how it is processed. Cold, solvent extracted CSNL is mostly composed of anacardic acids (70%), cardol (18%) and cardanol (5%) These substances are dermatogenic, like the oils of the poison ivy, and present danger during manual cashew processing.
Key Words: Cashew Nutshell, Liquid Resin, timber, cadanol, cracked heels, cashew processing fossils, hydrocarbon, carbonaceous meteorites, crops, wooden shafts, hasbeya, Sources, claridge, Molasses, Asphaltum, bitumen, Asphaltos, asphalton, pitch,gwitu-men, kitt, kavada, Crude oil, Synbit .


Concepts and Technique in Data Mining Optimizations
(Deepti Rani, Prof. K.P. Yadav, Kulbeer Singh, Nitesh K. N.)


Data mining involves the use of sophisticated machine learning algorithms to uncover fundamental patterns in the data. With the unprecedented rate at which data is being collected today in almost all fields of human Endeavour, there is an emerging economic and scientific need to extract useful information from it . Data mining is the process of automatic or semi-automatic discovery of patterns from massive databases, and is a highly inter-disciplinary field representing the synthesis of multiple disciplines, including database systems, data warehousing, machine learning, statistics, algorithms, data visualization, and high performance computing.
Keywords: Data Mining, Clustering, K-Means, Genetic Algorithm.


Xilinx HDLC Bit Stuffed Algorithm for Insertion and Deletion and Checking 32bit CRC for 16 bit Address
(Neeraj Kumar Mishra)


HDLC operates at the data link layer of the OSI Model main focus of the is to understand the data link layer and develop a protocol which can offer its services to the layer above it i.e. is the network layer and the layer below it i.e. the physical layer. The function of this protocol controller is to perform a number of separate activities like to check for errors, physical addressing, flow control Xilinx design of HDLC Controller and simulation design and implement a high performance. This will then be coded in a VHSIC hardware description language (VHDL). The functioning of the coded design is to be simulated on simulation software (e.g. Model Sim.). After proper simulation, the design is to be synthesized and then translated to a structural architecture in terms of the components on the target FPGA,CPLD and ASIC’s device (Spartan 3) and the perform the post-translate simulation in order to proof the proper checking the functionality of Xilinx HDLC of the design after translation. After the well functioning simulation of the post-translate model the design of HDLC is mapped to the existing slices of the FPGA, CPLD and ASIC’s etc. and the post-map model simulated. The post-map model doesn’t include the delay and optimization of channel length. After then l completion of the post-map simulation, the design of coded is then routed and a post-route simulation model with the appropriate routing delays is generated to be simulated on the Xilinx HDL simulator. After this a programming file is generated to program the FPGA device. And checking redundancy bit CRC in both transmitter and receiver side.
Key Words: Xilinx, HDLC, CRC.


Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Multilayer Structure
(M.P. Yadav, Deepak Sharma, O.D. Sharma)


Electromagnetic waves propagate in vacuum with speed of light c. These waves have a wide frequency range from long radio waves ( ˜ 1 Hz) to gamma rays ( ˜ 1022 Hz). Visible light waves have frequency of the order of 1015 Hz and wavelength range from 400 nm to 700 nm. When electromagnetic waves fall on a thin dielectric layer, they are partly reflected from the surface separating two media and partly refracted through the medium, because for a thin layer absorption and dispersion are negligible. Dielectric materials have positive permittivity , positive permeability and positive refractive index n. On the other hand, meta-materials have negative permittivity, negative permeability and negative refracting index in a certain frequency range. In the present investigation, we have derived analytical expressions using Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory for the reflected power R and transmitted power T for a multilayer structure consisting of a pair of meta-material and dielectric layer inserted between two semi-infinite dielectric media. These expressions show that T+R = 1, which is consistent with law of conservation of energy. It is found that the transmittivity is independent of the angle of incidence when the layers have the same thickness and the refractive indices of meta-material and the dielectric layer are numerically equal. Variation of transmittivity with angle of incidence shows a dip between 55° and 60°. The derived expressions immediately give the result that the reflected power is zero when the semi-infinite dielectric media have the same refractive index and the layers have the same width, also the refractive indices of meta-material and the dielectric are numerically equal.
Keywords: Electromagnetic Waves.


Effect of Seven Weeks Progressive Training Programme on Physical Fitness of Kho-Kho Players of Himachal Pradesh
(Sharmila Devi)


The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the effect of Seven weeks progressive training programme on physical fitness of Kho-Kho players of Himachal Pradesh. For this purpose 320 Kho-Kho players (160 boys and 160 girls) under 14 age group of Himachal Pradesh were taken as sample. Both groups were given the training of seven weeks. Results show that regular practice of progressive training improved the physical fitness components of Kho-Kho players. In this training programme boys were found to be significantly better on all the components of physical fitness in case of girls there was improvement in speed, explosive power, endurance strength and forearm muscles and no significant difference on agility and strength of abdominal muscle component of physical fitness.
Key Words: Kho-Kho, Physical Fitness.


A Critical Review on Solar Water Heater
(Sudhir Chaudhari, Nimesh Parmar, Hitesh N Panchal)


Solar water heater has wide variety of applications in domestic as well as industrial sector due to need of hot water requirements of them. According to Renewable Energy Policy Network data (2010), more than 70 million people require daily usage of hot water. Solar water heater is not only environment friendly but requires very less l maintenance and operation cost compared with any other solar operated devices. It also consists of very less energy pay back time of 2 years to 3 years. Mainly solar water heater is consisting of two types called active solar water heater and passive solar water heater. Here, this review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world.
Keywords: Solar Water Heater.


Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Network
(Narendra Kumar Sharma, Dr. Satish Narayan Gaur)


This paper presents basic features of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) & Qos. It further showcases Fuzzy Logic as an effective system control mechanism. Issues on the concepts of ATM (virtual circuits, fixed-size packets, time-division multiplexing), as a very high speed network, are presented. The characteristics of this network and its applications are also reviewed. These ideas allow the building of networks that can carry different classes of traffic with guaranteed quality-of-service (QoS) for each of the traffics.
Key Words: Asynchronous Transfer Mode, Constant Bit Rate, Variable Bit Rate, Switching, Virtual circuit, Network, QoS, Packet, Multiplexing.


Robust Mobile Computing for Road Traffic and Vehicle Communication
(O. P. Pal)


The driving vehicle is a very environment in which to interact with computing Devices, communication and automatic control. Therefore, the traffic mode offers computing a ubiquitous challenge, in that a method for safe and secure mobile computing is required in order to provide a suitable computation medium for communication with mobile devices without Interference from the drivers to do driving task.
Keywords: Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC), multi-hopping transmission, IVC routing, security in IVC, Intra-Vehicle Communication, ultra-wideband, ray optics, signal to noise ratio, omni-directional, cooperative collision avoidance, Zigbee, controller area network, vehicle-to-roadside, electronic toll collection,IEEE 802.11p and P1609.


Application Performing Interface Designing For QoS Management at Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Switching
(Narendra Kumar Sharma, Dr. Satish Narayan Gaur)


This paper presents basic features & Application performing interface designing for QoS management of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). It further describes Fuzzy Logic as an effective system control mechanism. Issues on the concepts of ATM (virtual circuits, fixed-size packets, time-division multiplexing), as a very high speed network, are presented. The characteristics of this network and its applications are also reviewed. These ideas allow the building of networks that can carry different classes of traffic with guaranteed quality-of-service (QoS) for each of the traffics.
Key Words: Asynchronous Transfer Mode, Constant Bit Rate, Variable Bit Rate, Switching, Virtual circuit, Network, QoS, Packet, Multiplexing, usage parameter control, connection admission control.


Comparative Study on Routing Protocols GSR, OLSR and CAR in VANETs
(Nitin Kumar Verma, Jyoti Tewari, Swati Arya)


VANETs is an extended form of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System .It should be capable to handle high rate, often interrupt in connection .The quality of received wireless signal level degraded due to path-loss from various obstacles in path as a result nodes use flooding mechanism that unconditionally scatters the data packets Which affects the network . In this paper we are throwing spotlight on routing overheads in VANETS.


Mother Fixation in D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers
(Baljinder Kaur)


The most interesting and important of all the women in novel, Sons and Lovers, Mrs. Gertrude Morel is the central woman character around which all other characters revolve. It is well known that her character approximates very closely to that of Mrs. Lydia Lawrence, the novelist's mother. The heroic figure of this novel is not Paul Morel, who covers the major part of the book, but his grim little mother, who had married beneath her, and was forced to turn to her sons for satisfaction of her instincts for devotion which had been so cruelly wasted on her husband.1 Mrs. Morel is the strongest motive force in the novel. She and only she, is involved in all the relationships dealt with, she is the factor common to all of them.


Ursula Brangwen in D.H. Lawrence’s The Rainbow - A Feminist Perspective
(Baljinder Kaur)


'The Rainbow' is Lawrence's only feminist novel that talks about woman's status changing from a housewife to a career woman. Women demand equal treatment and independence in every aspect of life and in 'The Rainbow' come to experience Ursula as a young woman who decides to struggle in her search for independence and to face all of life's big questions: marriage, love, maternity, economic independence and the place of women in society. Lawrence takes the reader through three generations of the Brangwen family and finally comes to focus closely on Ursula, a universal feminist character that poses the great questions of modern humanity.


“The Dark Hold No Terrors”: The Female Quest for Identity
(Shailendra Kaur)


Shashi Deshpande is the only Indian woman novelist who has made a concentrated study of the educated women of the middle class and highlighted the maladies with which they suffer. She enters the inner world of her women and brings out their divided selves – the skeletons from their cupboards. Shashi Deshpande stressed the need for women to be free from the shackles of their traditional position and see their own need for self-fulfillment is more important than the duty of sacrificing themselves for their husbands and children.


Feminine Consciousness: The Image of Women in Shashi Deshpande’s “A Matter of Time”
(Shailendra Kaur)


Shashi Deshpande’s novels are an attempt to analyze the Indian women’s journey towards selfhood. The novelist believes that selfhood or autonomy is not fixity rather it is a process leading towards the realization of one’s own identity, though the process is quite tiresome in itself because the pressures of their surroundings and the pulls of tradition are so heavily put upon them. P. Ramamoorthi says, “……A woman is a being. She is not an appendage of man……She is not an addition to man. She is an autonomous being capable of, through trial and errors, finding her own way to salvation…..”1 Salvation from the tyrannical ways that tend to deprive a woman from her rightful place in the society, that deny her an independent existence of her own. These are the goals of today’s woman that she is aspiring for, though her way towards attaining autonomy, is not smooth and she has to face hurdles both from the outside world as well as from her own ambivalence.


A Systematic Review of Software Reliability & Robustness
(Farman Khan, Ishu Mittal)


Through this research, we are sure about that how software is made more reliable and robust. As, here the base for research is basic time execution model and there extended version, i.e. extended time execution model, together with the functional testing and representative testing. Now when we apply functional testing over basic time execution model there is always chance of get more time overhead this led to delay in the overall software development life cycle but also we are not satisfy with the software in hand because we are not 100% sure that we can made a software with high reliability, due to because Basic Time Execution Model only successful with uniform execution, hence here in our experiment we apply functional testing by using Extended Execution Time Model prior to it. Due to which we are able include both uniform as well as non uniform execution and also the sorted activity profile, which play a vital role in development of test cases that help to cover all the faults in the software. Now Extended Execution Time + Functional Testing over the software can help us to develop more reliable test cases, that are common in both of them are much concrete than any other test cases, as they remove all uncertainty related to not finding of faults, i.e. we definitely find fault with that test case if fault is present and after detection we easily take to solve it.


A Review on Behaviour of Masonary Infill Panel in RC Framed Structure
(Saiful Islam, Mozaffar Imam)


Unreinforced masonry (URM) infilled RC frame buildings are common structures in India. Masonry infill is used in building for its good sound and heat insulation property. The analytical modeling of infilled frame is a complex issue because these structures exhibit highly nonlinear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction of the masonry infill panel and the surrounding frame. Due to this frame-infill interaction , the behavior of masonry infilled RC frame buildings under lateral load gets changed than that of bare RC frame building. The common practice of ignoring infills and designing the buildings as bare frame is not always conservative. The modeling approaches for masonry infills can be grouped into micro models and macro models. Micro models capture the behavior of infill and its interaction with the frames in much detail, but these models are computationally expensive. On the other hand,the macro model try to capture the gross behavior of infill, are approximate but computationally efficient. This paper gives a review of works performed on behavior of masonary infill panel in RC framed structures.
Keywords: Masonary infill panel, Plastic hinge, Plastic zone, FEM, Framed structure.


“Performance Evaluation Of LEACH, SPIN, Directed Diffusion In Wireless Sensor Network Using NS2 Simulation On Ubuntu”
(Monika Rani, Nitin Kumar Verma)


Wireless communications has become of such fundamental importance that a world without it is no longer imaginable for many of us. Beyond the established technologies such as mobile phones and WLAN, new approaches to wireless communication are emerging being the ad-hoc and sensor networks one of the most notorious and interesting for their potential applications. The primary interest in wireless sensor networks is due to their ability to monitor the physical environment through ad hoc deployment of numerous tiny, intelligent, wireless networked sensor nodes. Traditional routing protocols developed for wireless ad hoc networks cannot be used for sensor networks. This is because conventional protocols focus on avoiding congestion or maintaining connectivity when faced with mobility and not on the limited energy supply. This paper studies and compares Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN), Directed Diffusion and Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), to bring out the significance of energy-efficiency for routing protocols deployed in sensor networks. Sensor networks are simulated using NS2 simulator on Ubuntu. Several simulations are conducted to analyze the performance of these protocols including the power consumption and overall network performance.
Keywords: sensor networks, routing, energy-efficient protocols, SPIN, LEACH, Directed Diffusion.


Mobile Computing for Road Traffic and Vehicle Coordiantion
(O. P. Pal, R. K. Verma, Parag Rastogi, Vikas Jayant)


The driving vehicle is a very environment in which to interact with computing Devices, communication and automatic control. Therefore, the traffic mode offers computing a ubiquitous challenge, in that a method for safe and secure mobile computing is required in order to provide a suitable computation medium for communication with mobile devices without Interference from the drivers to do driving task.


Security Requirement Elicitation Phase of Secure Software Development Life Cycle
(Mr. Swapnesh Taterh, Dr. K.P. Yadav, Dr. S.K Sharma, Mahesh Kr. Sharma)


In security requirement elicitation phase we identified an assets and their criticality to the organization is established. The purpose of this paper is to explain the use of software security requirement elicitation phase with respect to the security in the different phase of software development. These are one such method that, when integrated in the software development process, can help developers to prevent security problems in software. Software is malleable in the design phase, once the architectural design and attach tree are set, and then after the cost and complexity of making changes rises tremendously.
Keywords: Software Security, Asset, Vulnerabilities, Security, SDLC, Attack Tree, Use Case, Security Case, Abuse Case.


Automatic Detection and Comparative Analysis of SVM and KNN Algorithm for the Implementation of Leucoderma
(Vishesh Kumar, Er. Harish Chandra Maurya, Saru Tomar)


The aim of the research reported in the paper is to obtain an alternative approach in using Support Vector Machine (SVM) in case of nonlinearly separable data based on using the k-means algorithm instead of the standard kernel based approach. In designing a classifier, two main problems have to be solved, on one hand the option concerning a suitable structure and on the other hand the selection of an algorithm for parameter estimation. The algorithm for parameter estimation performs the optimization of a convenable selected cost function with respect to the empirical risk which is directly related to the representativeness of the available learning sequence. The choice of the structure is made such that to maximize the generalization capacity, that is to assure good performance in classifying new data coming from the same classes. In solving these problems one has to establish a balance between the accuracy in encoding the learning sequence and the generalization capacities because usually the over-fitting prevents the minimization of the empirical risk.


A Tasks Allocation Algorithm for Optimum Utilization of Processor’s in Heterogeneous Distributing Computing Systems
(P.K. Yadav, Preet Pal Singh, P. Pradhan)


In Distributed Processing System (DPS), partitioning of the application software into small tasks and the proper mapping of these tasks among processors are one of the important parameter which determine the efficient utilization of available Processor’s Capacity. The model discussed here performs static task mapping/ allocation of a set of ‘m’ tasks of a program to a set of ‘n’ processors (where m > n) with the constraints of minimizing Inter Task communication (ITC) cost and maximize the overall throughput of the system in such a way that allocated load on all the processors is balanced. While designing the model Per Bit Processor Service Rate PSR(,)and Inter Task Communication Cost ITCC(,) and Task Size TS (,) have taken into consideration.


Testing, Automation and Performance Analysis of Web Services Testing-A Survey
(Neelaksh Sheel, Dr. Shailendra Mishra)


Service Oriented Architectures, and particularly Web Services, are receiving a growing attention from research and industry. With Web Services, software is used and operation happens on machines that are out of the user control. Therefore, providing users with means to build confidence that a service delivers the desired function with the expected QoS becomes a key issue. Web Services are based on communication Protocol, Services description, and services discovery are built on top of existing web protocols and based on open XML standards. Web services uses web services description language (WSDL), and the Universal Description, Discovery and Integration directory (UDDI) provide a registry of web services descriptions. Because of the inherent characteristics of web services there is a semi-circular demand for web services testing. Testing is important for both side i.e. from services provider and user side. But with the different availability of the testing approach most of them do not evaluate the generated test data. This Paper studies description of different testing, its automation and Performance analysis of web services.
Keywords: Web Services, Testing, Automation, Performance Analysis.


Understanding the Power of Big Data
(Deepa Gupta, Sameera Siddiqui)


Big data refers to voluminous data which ranges in Exabyte’s (1018) and beyond. It is defined as the amount of data just beyond technology’s capability to store, manage and process efficiently. It is the next big thing in computers. “Big data” is just the beginning of the problem. Technology evolution and placement guarantee that in a few years more data will be available in a year than has been collected since the dawn of man. Big data is characterized by 4V’s Volume, variety, velocity and veracity. We added the veracity characteristic. Recently in response to the quality and source issues our clients began facing with their Big Data initiatives with this new technology we face major issues and challenges of storage and security. In this paper we address the various challenges, experimental work done on Big Data problem and its optimal solution using Hadoop cluster and the architecture.
- Big Data Problem, Hadoop cluster, Hadoop Distributed File System, Parallel Processing, Map Reduce


Image Enrichment by Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques
(Sunil Kumar Yadav, Prof. (Dr.) Sanjeev Bansal)


There are different type of problem related to image such as brightness sharpness buller darkness and spots. In present time many techniques are used to solve these types of problems. In this paper we are using the soft computing (SC) technique for the solution of image related problem. Image enrichment is basically enhancing the visual appearance of the image to the user so that he can make decision on the basis of enriched image for next orations. The process of fuzzy logic technique involves the operations that are membership function, logical operation, If-Then rules. The fuzzy logic technique helps us to manage these types of problems like uncertainties with in image processing and ambiguity. All the implementation work done in MAT LAB 7.9


Neural Network Classification of Non-Linear System
(Dr. K.P. Yadav, Dr. R.K. Srivastava)


The problem of system modeling and classification has been motivated and inspired for research in this area during the past four decades mostly because of a large number of applications in diverse fields such as chemical processes, biomedical systems, ecology, econometrics, and social sciences. In all of these cases, a model consists of mathematical equations that can be used for understanding the behaviour of the system and, prediction for control. Most processes are nonlinear to some extent, and in many practical applications nonlinear models may be required to achieve an objective accuracy. The choice of model is very important since it influences its usefulness in prediction for control. Practical applications have shown that nonlinear models can provide a better accuracy of data and also produce rich behaviour such as limit cycles and bifurcations that cannot be captured by linear models.
- Neural Network, Zernike moments, Learning Algorithms.


“Improve the Classification Accuracy of Naive Bayes Classifier Using Proposed Algorithm in Educational Data Mining”
(Samrat Singh, Dr. Vikesh Kumar)


Mining in education environment is called Educational Data Mining. In our work, we collected the student’s data from engineering institute that have different information about their previous and current academics records like students Roll No., Name, Branch, 10th, 12th, B.Tech passing percentage and final grade & then apply different classification algorithm classifires like BayesNet, Naive Bayes, Multilayers Perceptron, IB1, Decision Table, PART using Data Mining tools (WEKA) for analysis the students academics performance. This paper deals with a comparative study of above classifiers & others lazy classifiers algorithms and finds that IB1 Classifier (Lazy Classifier) algorithm generates the better results on various measurements and Naive Bayes Classifier generates the lowest result of classification accuracy on students’ dataset. In this paper a new supervised learning algorithm using Naive Bayes classifier is presented, which calculates the prior and conditional probabilities from a given training data and classifies the training instances using these probabilities. If any training instance is misclassified then the algorithm calculates the information gain of attributes of the training data and chooses one attribute from training data with maximum information gain value. After the algorithm splits the training data into sub-datasets depending on the attribute values of the selected attribute and this process will continue until all the training instances are correctly classified. Finally, the proposed algorithm (Using Naive Bayes classifier) preserves the probabilities of student’s dataset and classified 100% accuracy of the student’s dataset.